# Calculator Benchmark: Loops of addition

Presently in order from fastest to slowest.
This benchmark goes after ONLY goes after one thing: loops of addition.
LBL 01 + GTO 01

where the stack contains 0 1 1 1 on 4 level machines. In other words, start with 0 and do repeated additions of 1 for 60 seconds. What is the result? Alternative methods that count 1 at a time are allowed and included, such as going through an ISG / DSE loop. Long repeated programs of + + + + are not.

## Physical calculators

Notation

• Calculator used and firmware/software
• The count after 60 seconds of execution
• The program code used.
1. HP 50g 2.15, ARM ASM, 75MHz
• Count: 593'615'984
• Note: After toying around with the addloop benchmark, I found out that my optimization does really help a lot. After throwing it out (delete the lines that say TST R2,$F and BNE loop) I just got 158998232. And when I increased the number of additions between the ON key checks from 16 to 256 (by replacing $F with $FF), I even got 728'608'512. The keyboard was still responsive enough, it “only” checked the ON key about 47000 times per second. 3298 • Note: I made a small optimisation: the ON key is only checked when the lowest 4 bits of the counter are 0. This avoids some memory accesses (ARM I/O is always memory-mapped) without losing too much precision - after all, I stopped it while looking at a normal clock. Also, I used two registers for the counter because I feared a single register would overflow. This was not the case, but as the result showed, 8 minutes would have made it overflow. • Code: 1) 2. HP 50g 2.15, HPGCC, 75MHz • Count: 161,722,281 • #include <hpgcc49.h> int main(void) { unsigned int c=0; unsigned int volatile * GPFDAT = (int*) 0x7A00054; sys_slowOff(); //press ON to stop while(!(*GPFDAT&1)) c++; sat_push_zint_llong(c); return 0; }  3. Ti-89 Titanium, GCC4TI, HW4 running AMS 3.10 patched with my tiosmod+amspatch • Count: • around 25'000'000 for addloop 1 (using the CPU's registers) • around 9'800'000 for addloop2 (using also the ram) • Notes: • building them requires GCC4TI, they won't compile with the older, unmaintained and much harder to install TIGCC. • the main loop is a tiny code snippet buried into the rest of accuracy-increasing measures and dealing with the consequences of pressing the ON key; • the main loop in addloop1 is a 1:1 copy of that of the HP-50g benchmark; • the main loop in addloop2 is closer to interpreted languages, since at least, the variable is read from + written to memory, and it shows ~2.5x slowdown. • Code: see the note 2) 4. HP-12C+, Scott’s custom firmware • Count: 10,794,647 • Do { ++x; } while ((((*(unsigned long int*)PIOC_PDSR) & c_mask)==c_mask));  5. Casio fx-CG 10 PRIZM, OS version 01.04.3200, C PrizmSDK 3) • Count: • 6'921'042 overclocked to 94.3MHz (max overclocking without freezing) • 4'685'089 @58mhz with some improvements on keyupdate Flyingfisch • 4'246'899 default 58Mhz • Note: AC/on displays value of int i, MENU exits • Code: see the note 4) 6. Hp50g Saturn ASM • Count: 6,469,858 OS version 2.15 with HPGCC3 patch 75MHz. 5) • CODE GOSBVL SAVPTR D0=80EAB ;ATTNFLG A=0.W *loop A+1.W C=DAT0.A ?C=0.A GOYES *loop GOSBVL GETPTR P=15 GOVLNG PUSHhxsLoop ENDCODE 7. Prime: v2013.8.13 • Count: 6,646,300 • export LOOP() begin A:=0; for A from 1 to 1E9 do end; end; Recall A after ON to stop running on 1 min. Average of several runs. 8. HP-71B USA:2504A00223 HP71:1BBBB FTH:1A, year of production 1984? • Count: 1,069,543 • Code: see the note 6) 9. Hp39gII • Count: 1,062,108 7) • EXPORT LOOP() BEGIN A:=0; FOR A FROM 1 TO 1E9 DO END; END; • Count: ~640,000 8) • EXPORT ADDLOOP() BEGIN A:=0; REPEAT A:=A+1; UNTIL 0; END; 10. Casio fx-CG 10 PRIZM, OS version 01.04.3200, LuaZM 9) • Count: 893207 sec overclocked to 94.3MHz (max overclocking without freezing • Count: 547223 sec default 58Mhz • Note: When running this code, note that it breaks when AC/on is pressed. I used the fastest Getkey routine for PRIZM, I may try a test directly polling the RTC in the future. • zmg.keyDirectPoll() for i=1,100000000000 do zmg.keyDirectPoll() if zmg.keyDirect(10)>0 then print(i) break end end 11. HP 30b with TSTSYS ON • Count: 531,131 •  LBL 00 ISG 0 Stop GOTO 00, with 0 pre-stored in 0. Result indicates count of loops in one minute. Each loop adds 1 to value in memory 0. (as first program in memory) 12. HP 30b 10) • Count: ~415.000 with crystal enabled, 340.000 without • INC X BACK 01 13. FX-9860G SD Fast Mode • Count: 370,230 • Code: Lbl 0 : Isz A : Goto 0 14. HP 34s Build 1099 • Count: 272,538 • Code: LBL A, +, BACK 01 15. FX-9860G SD Fast Mode • Count: 237,780 • Code: Lbl 0 : Ans+1 : Goto 0 16. HP 30b with TSTSYS ON • Count: 222,578 • Code: LBL 00 + GOTO 00 (as first program in memory) 17. HP 30b with TSTSYS ON • Count: 209,038 • Code: LBL 00 STO+0 GOTO 00 with 0 pre-stored in 0 and 1’s filling the stack (as first program in memory) 18. FX-9860G SD Fast Mode • Count: 206,250 • Code: 0→A : Lbl 0 : A+1→A : Goto 0 19. FX-9860G SD • Count: 177,230 • Code: Lbl 0 : Isz A : Goto 0 20. HP 50g (SysRPL bint) • Count: 153,421 OS version 2.15 with HPGCC3 patch 75MHz.11) • Code: :: BINT0 BEGIN #1+ ATTN? UNTIL UNCOERCE ; • Count: 124,445 • Code: !NO CODE !RPL :: ZERO BEGIN #1+ GETTOUCH UNTIL DROP ; @ 21. FX-9860G SD • Count: 110,140 • Code: Lbl 0 : Ans+1 : Goto 0 22. FX-9860G SD • Count: 97,950 • Code: 0→A : Lbl 0 : A+1→A : Goto 0 23. WP 34s Stack depth 4 • LBL'XYZ' + GTO'XYZ' 90891 LBL A + GTO A 90675 LBL 00 + GTO 00 90369 24. Casio fx-CG 10 PRIZM with CASIO-BASIC 12) • note: Timing done by hand with a stopwatch, may be off by as much as half a second. • Count: 85074 overclocked to 94.3MHz, OS version 01.04.3200 • For 1->I To 1000000000 Next  • Count: 54006 overclocked to 94.3MHz (max overclocking without freezing), OS version 01.04.3200 • 0->S run in Run-Mat before timing While 1 Isz S WhileEnd  • Count: 51844 clocked at default 58MHz, OS version 01.04.3200 • For 1->I To 1000000000 Next  • Count: 33012 clocked at default 58MHz, OS version 01.04.3200 •  0->S run in Run-Mat before timing While 1 Isz S WhileEnd  • Count: 22658 clocked at default 58MHz, OS version 01.04.3200 • 0->S While 1 S+1->S WhileEnd  25. HP 12c+ • Count: 78,640 • Code: + GTO 01 26. WP 34s Stack depth 8 • LBL 00 + GTO 00 78209 27. HP 30b • Count: 72,517 • Code: LBL 00 + GOTO 00 (as first program in memory) 28. HP 9825 B • Count: 59,568 • Code: 0→A; “start”; A+1→A; gto “start”; end 29. HP 15c le • + x=0? 59006 or 59182 ISG 00 41062 or 41048 ISG I 40746 ISG .9 40922 30. HP 50g (SysRPL floating point) • Count: 56,994 • Code: !NO CODE !RPL :: BEGIN %1+ GETTOUCH UNTIL DROP ; @ 31. Casio fx-9860G Slim • Count: 55,924 • Code: 0→A Lbl 0 A+1→A Goto 0 32. HP-9100A SERIAL NUMBER 816-01071 (1971?) • Count: 49,391 • Code: +, GO TO 00 33. hp 15c le stopped by hand, maybe 2 s +/- • Count: ~ 48,000 • LBL E + GTO E 48823 LBL 09 + GTO 09 48763 LBL A + GTO A 48721 LBL 01 + GTO 01 48509 LBL .9 + GTO .9 44448 LBL .1 + GTO .1 44083 34. HP 9815S • Count: 47,592 • Code: 000 + 001 GOTO 000 35. HP-9100B • Count: 47,394 • Code: +, GO TO, 0, 0 36. HP-71B Forth Xerxes: • COUNT: 46,575 • Forth : XERXES 1 SWAP 0 DO 1+ LOOP ; 46575 XERXES DROP BYE 37. HP 50g • Count: 31,849 • Code: 1. « DO 1. + UNTIL 0. END » 38. HP 9815A/S • Count: 31,156 • Code; LBL, A, 1, +, GTO A 39. HP 48gII Exact mode (old version) • Count: 28,160 • Code: 1. « DO 1. + UNTIL 0. END » EVAL 40. HP 48gII • Count: 26,439 Approx Mode • Code: « WHILE 1 REPEAT 1. + END » 41. TI-83+ SE • Count: 24,840 • Code: Lbl 0 : Ans+1 : Goto 0 42. HP 85 • Count: 23,605 • Code: 10 Let A=0; 20 Let A=A+1; 30 goto 20; 40 END 43. Sharp EL-9900 • Count: 23,483 • Code: Label X A+1⇒A Goto X 44. HP-75C (1982) • Count: 21,717 • Code: &#8232;10 A=0&#8232;20 A=A+1 @ GOTO 20&#8232;30 END 45. TI-81 • Count: 20,191 • Code: Lbl A : Ans + 1 : Goto A : End 46. TI-83 • Count: 19,020 13) • Code: :For(I,1,99999) :End • Count: 12,986 • Code: Lbl B: ans +1: goto B 47. Casio fx-9750G Plus rom 1.00 @ 4mhz with CASIO-BASIC 14) • note: Timing done by hand with a stopwatch, may be off by as much as half a second. • Count: 16526 • 0->S run in Run-Mat before timing While 1 Isz S WhileEnd  • Count: 7561 • 0->S While 1 S+1->S WhileEnd  48. TI-85 • Count 15,490 15) • Code: :For(I,1,99999) :End • Count 11,100 • Code: Lbl A : Ans + 1 : Goto A : End 49. Casio FX-7500G • Count: 15,364 • Code: Lbl 1 Isz A Goto 1 50. HP 9810A • Count: 15,355 • Code LBL, 1, +, GTO, 1 51. TI-81 • Count: 15,116 • Code: Lbl A : B + 1 > B : Goto A : End 52. TI-84 Silver Edition • Count: 13,838 • Code: Lbl 1:A+1→A: Goto 1 53. Casio Algebra FX 2.0 rom 1.05 clock around 24 mhz 16) • note: Timing done by hand with a stopwatch, may be off by as much as half a second. • Count: 12941 • 0->S run in Run-Mat before timing While 1 Isz S WhileEnd  • Count: 8115 • 0->S While 1 S+1->S WhileEnd  54. TI-86 • Count 12,690 17) • Code: :For(I,1,99999) :End • Count 5,347 • Code: Lbl A : Ans + 1 : Goto A : End 55. TI-89 Titanium (HW 4, AMS 3.10) patched with tiosmod/amspatch • note: I reran the TI-89t tests because there are evidently more variables influencing the benchmark results than I realized. The last test was in a folder with various variables in it and other stuff on the home screen. I did the test again from an empty folder and a completely cleared home screen and got these results. 18) • Count: • In AUTO mode: 12655.33 avg. • In EXACT mode: 12649.67 avg. • In APPROX mode: 4958.33 avg. • Code: For x,1,9999999999:EndFor • Count: • In AUTO mode: 12372.33 avg. • In EXACT mode: 12335.33 avg. • In APPROX mode: 8591.33 avg. • Code: 0→x:Loop:x+1→x:EndLoop • Count: • In AUTO mode: 12133 avg. • In EXACT mode: 12149.33 avg. • In APPROX mode: 8571.33 avg. • Code: 0→x:While true:x+1→x:EndWhile • Count: • In AUTO mode: 11072 avg. • In EXACT mode: 12149 avg. • In APPROX mode: 8081 avg. • Code: 0→x:Lbl a:x+1→x:Goto a 56. HP 49G • Count: 12,351 • Code: 1. « DO 1. + UNTIL 0. END » 57. TI CC-40 19) • Count: 12,110 • Code: 10 FOR I = 1 TO 99999 20 NEXT I 58. The NEWT 41CL logic board upgrade for the HP 41. • Code: LBL 00 + GTO 00 • 1X mode: 1,055 2X Turbo mode: 1,913 5X Turbo mode: 4,153 10X Turbo mode: 6,538 20X Turbo mode: 9,179 50X Turbo mode: 12,022 59. HP 48GX • Count: 11,636 • Code: « WHILE 1 REPEAT 1 + END » 60. TI-89 Titanium (HW 2, AMS 2.08) patched with tiosmod/amspatch • note: I reran the TI-89t tests because there are evidently more variables influencing the benchmark results than I realized. The last test was in a folder with various variables in it and other stuff on the home screen. I did the test again from an empty folder and a completely cleared home screen and got these results. 20) • Count: • In AUTO mode: 11428 avg. • In EXACT mode: 11436 avg. • In APPROX mode: 8156 avg. • Code: 0→x:Loop:x+1→x:EndLoop • Count: • In AUTO mode: 11174 avg. • In EXACT mode: 11185 avg. • In APPROX mode: 8019 avg. • Code: 0→x:While true:x+1→x:EndWhile • Count: • In AUTO mode: 10666 avg. • In EXACT mode: 10692 avg. • In APPROX mode: 4295 avg. • Code: For x,1,9999999999:EndFor • Count: • In AUTO mode: 10266 avg. • In EXACT mode: 11185 avg. • In APPROX mode: 7521 avg. • Code: 0→x:Lbl a:x+1→x:Goto a 61. HP 49G • Count: 11,041 • Code: « WHILE 1. REPEAT 1. + END » 62. Psion Organiser II CM (1997) • Count: 10,949 • Code: &#8232; LOCAL a&#8232;a=1&#8232;DO&#8232;a=a+1&#8232;UNTIL KEY$=“S”&#8232;PRINT a&#8232;GET
63. HP-48G
• Count: 10,726
• Code: « WHILE 1 REPEAT 1 + END »
64. Casio FX-7500G
• Count: 10,692
• Code: Lbl 1 Ans+1 Goto 1
65. TI-83+
• Count 10,385
• Code: Lbl A : Ans + 1 : Goto A : End
66. HP 33s
• Count: 10,097
• Code: LBL A + GTO A
67. TI CC-40
• Count: 9,339
• Code: 10 A = A+ 1 : 20 GOTO 10
68. TI-89 Titanium
• Count: 9,339
• Program: aa():Prgm:Lbl b:a+1→a:Goto 1: EndPrgm
69. Sharp EL-5500III 21)
• Count: 9,140
• Code: 10 FOR I = 1 TO 9999 : 20 NEXT I
70. Casio FX-7500G
• Count: 8,878
• Code: Lbl 1 A+1→A Goto 1
71. TI-83
• Count: 8,106
• Code: LBL B, A+1»A, goto B
72. Casio FX-7500G
• Count: 8,105
• Code: 0→A Lbl 1 A+1→A Goto 1
73. Casio fx-7000GB
• Result: 7,437
• Code: LbL 1; A+1→A; Goto A
74. HP-48SX
• Count: 7,352
• Code: Unknown
75. FX-603P
• Count: 7,240
• Code: AC 1 + + LBL 0 = GOTO 0
76. HP-42s FAST MODE S/N 2849A with goose disabled
• Count: 6,485
• Code: CLLCD LBL 01 + GTO 01
77. HP-32s
• Count: 5,973
• Code: LBL A + GTO A
78. TI-92
• Count: 5,686
• Code: 0→a Lbl aa a+1→a Goto aa
79. HP-28S
• Count: 5,677
• Code: HOME 1 « WHILE 1 REPEAT 1 + END » EVAL
80. HP 50G (normal speed)
• Count: 5,510
• Code: « 1 + A » stored in A, start with 1 on stack line 1:
81. HP 35s
• Count: 5,504
• Code: B001 LBL B B002 STO+ Z B003 GTO B002, with Z initialized to 0
82. FX-5800P
• Count: 5,340
• Code: Lbl 0 : Ans+1 : Goto 0
83. PC-1247
• Count: 5,180
• Code: 1:A=A+1:GOTO1
84. HP 20S
• Count: 4,837
• Code: LBL A, +, GTO A
85. HP-32sii
• Count: 4,715
• Code: LBL A, +, GTO A
86. HP-42s FAST MODE S/N 2849A
• Count: 4,419
• Code: LBL 01 + GTO 01
87. HP-71B
• Count: 4,320
• 10 DESTROY A @ A=0
20 ON TIMER #1,60 GOTO 40
30 A=A+1 @ GOTO 30
40 DISP A
88. HP 48gII (Original 3 batteries, NO USB)
• Count: 4,296
• Code: « TICKS 8192 60 * + « → t « DO 1. + UNTIL TICKS t >= END » » EVAL »
89. HP-20S
• Count: 4,170
• Code: Unknown
90. HP 35s
• Count: 3,652
• Code: LBL B, +, GTO B001
91. TI-86
• Count: 3,612
• Code: Lbl B:1+A→A:Goto B
92. HP 39gs
• Count: 3,607
• Code: 1→A: DO A+1→A UNTIL A⇐0 END:
93. Aurora HP 12c clone
• Count: 3,554
• Code: +, GTO 01
94. TI-95
• Count: 3,350 counts
• Code: 1 + GTO 0000
• Count: 3,317
• Code: 1: A=A+1 2: GOTO 1 ; start with 0 stored in A.
96. Casio fx602p
• Count: 3,111
• Code: AC 1++ LBL1 = GOTO1
97. Sharp EL-9650
• Count: 3,093
• Code: Label X A+1⇒A Goto X
98. HP 48gII (Original 3 batteries, NO USB)
• Count: 3,088
• Code: « WHILE 1 REPEAT 1. + END »
99. TI-80
• Count 3,080 22)
• Code: :For(I,1,99999) :End
• Count 2,279
• Code: Lbl A : Ans + 1 : Goto A : End
100. HP-42S with “goose” disabled. Non-fast mode.
• Count: 3,067
• Code: CLLCD, LBL 00 + GTO 00
101. HP 48gii Exact mode (Original 3 batteries, NO USB)
• Count: 3,036
• Code: « WHILE 1 REPEAT 1 + END »
102. HP-42S
• Count: 2,115
• Code: LBL 00 + GTO 00
103. Sharp EL-5500III
• Count: 2,056
• Code: 1 A=A+1: GOTO 1
104. DM-15cc
• Count max: 2038
• 000 +
001 x=0
Just fill the stack with 1s and hit the R/S key.
For this to work all the programs have to be cleared beforehand.
Another variant is to start with 0 in register I and use this program:

000 ISG I
The results are 2038 and 1669 using a DM-15CC. 
105. HP-41CY Turbo
• Count: 1,982
• Code: LBL 00, +, GTO 00
106. Sharp EL-5500II
• Count: 1,510
• Code: 1 A=A+1: GOTO 1
107. HP 9G
• Count: 1,470
• Code: A=0; Lbl 0=; A=A+1; GOTO 0; END
108. HP 12c plat 25th anniv.
• Count: 1,435
• Code: +, Goto 001
109. HP 12c platinum
• Count: 1,386
• Code: + GTO 001
110. HP41CX Synthetic:
• Count: 1,298
•  01 LBL "X”
02 1
03 "SeeRemark"

!!! Synthetic string 9 long Decimal 249 96 7 117 131 131 131 64 178 176
this places 96 7 in N to be transferred in reg b, resulting in
program counter in reg M, byte 6. In reg M synthetic code results
in: RDN ENTER ENTER ENTER + GTO 01. The GTO 01 is a COMPILED GTO
jumping to the + before it! You can SST this code but the GTO 01
takes a long time to reposition! Yes, this can be optimized still a
bit, but the loop is using 3 bytes!

04 0
05 X<> N
06 BEEP
07 STOP
08 STO b
09 END

XEQ "X"
wait until beep, 000000,06 is displayed
press [R/S] to start counting
press [R/S] after 60 seconds, write down the count
perform a GTO .. !!! because the program pointer is in reg M, switching to program mode and TOUCHING A KEY results in MEMORY LOST!
111. CASIO PB-700
• Count: 1,282
• Code: 1: A=A+1 2: GOTO 1 ; start with 0 stored in A.
112. Sharp PC-1251
• Count: 1,277
• Code: 1: A=A+1 2: GOTO 1 ; start with 0 stored in A.
113. HP41CX:
• Count 1,075
• Code: LBL 01 + GTO 01
114. HP 41c
• Count: 1,063
• Code: LBL 01 + GTO 01
115. TI-59
• Count: 635
• Code: 1 + RST
116. HP-65
• Count: 578
• Code: Lbl 1, +, Goto 1
117. HP-10C
• Count: 514
• Code: LBL 0 + GTO 0
118. HP-25
• Count: 512
• Code: 01 + 02 GTO 01
119. TI-59 starting with 1 in the display
• Count: 501
• Code: SUM 00 RST
120. HP 12c original (mfg. 1985)
• Count: 500
• Code: +; GTO 01
121. TI-57
• Count: 498
• Code: + 1 RST
122. TI-59
• Count: 492
• Code: OP20 RST
123. HP 25
• Count: 483
• Code: + GTO 01
124. TI SR-56
• Count: 461
• Code: + 1 = RST
125. TI SR-52
• Count: 425
• Code: + 1 = RST
126. HP-38C
• Count: 387
• Code: + GTO 01
127. TI 58C
• Count: 387
• Code: + 1 = RST
128. Human hand Tapping + key
• Count: 370 with m+ key on a sharp el506w
• Count: 359 with touch calculator of Palm Treo Pro (windows mobile 6.1)
• Count: 133
129. HP-29C
• Count: 361
• Code: LBL 0; +; GOTO 0
130. SHARP PC-1211
• Count: 358
• Code 1:Z=Z+1:GOTO 1 (starting with Z=0)
131. HP 11c
• Count: 353
• Code: Lbl 1, +, Goto 1
132. TI-59
• Count: 336
• Code: 1 + GTO 000
133. HP-33c (mfg. 1982)
• Count: 319
• Code: 01 + 02 GTO 01
134. HP 67
• Count: 349
• Code: 1 CHS STO I + GOTO (i)
135. HP 55
• Count: 312
• Code: + GTO 01
136. HP-19c
• Count: 301
• Code: LBL 1 + GTO 1
137. HP 15c (mfg. 1983)
• Count: 297
• Code: LBL A; +; GTO A
138. HP 16c: 293 (float 4)
• Count: 293
• Code: LBL A + GTO A
139. HP 34c: (I program) with -1 stored in I
• Count: 277
• Code: LBL A + GTO f I
140. HP 34c (mfg. 1981)
• Count: 269
• Code: LBL A; +; GTO A
141. TI-55
• Count: 267
• Code: + 1 RST
142. HP 34c:
• Count: 259
• Code: LBL A + GTO A
143. Odhner in hands of T. Klemm on 10 Sept 2013, 5:46 p.m.
• Count: 251.
144. HP 16c
• Count: 245
• Code: Lbl 1, +, Goto 1
145. HP 16c: 230 (decimal, wsize 16, 2-complement)
• Count: 230
• Code: LBL A + GTO A
146. HP 67
• Count: 226
• Code: LBL 1 + GTO 1
147. HP-97
• Count: 223
• Code: LBL1; +; GOTO 1
148. Texas Instrument TI-57LCD
• Count: 216
• Code: LBL_01 1 + GTO_01
149. TI-66
• Count: 210
• Code: + 1 = RST
150. TI-65
• Count: 205
• Code: 1 + RST
151. Texas Instrument TI-57LCD
• Count: 195
• Code: 1 + RST
152. TI-55
• Count: 189
• Code: + 1 = RST
153. TI BA 55
• Count: 139
• Code: + 1 = RST
154. Elektronika MK-61
• Count: 106
• Code: + GSB 00
155. TI-62
• Count: 100
• Code: 1 + RST
156. Commodore P50
• Count: 97
• Code: + 1 = SKZ GOTO 00 R/S ( Start with -97 )
157. TI-59 with RPN Module:
• Count: 74
•   HP-67 code: LBL 1 + 1 GOTO 1
The RPN Module translated that to:
LBL LNX PGM 51 A 1 PGM 12 A GTO LNX


### Needs confirmation

1. Casio fx-9860g Slim Compiled C program SDK V 1.0
• Why does it need a confirmation?
• Lionel Debroux observations: It doesn't know the value after 60 seconds, but it knows the value at the end of the loop, which is written in the code. For years, optimizing compilers have been able to recognize a number of loop idioms, especially such simple ones as
do {
counter++;
} while (counter < 349700000);

Such code is turned into

counter = 349700000;

by optimizing compilers; then, Dead Store Elimination will erase this assignment and the counter variable, since it's not used later.
Unless the compiler used for the fx-9860g absolutely stinks, or the benchmark is compiled without optimization, the program should print “end” immediately.

• Note: Is it maybe in fast mode? (118mhz instead of 29)
• Count: 349,700,000
• int AddIn_main(int isAppli, unsigned short OptionNum)
{
unsigned int key;
unsigned long int counter = 0;
Bdisp_AllClr_DDVRAM();
do {
counter++;
} while (counter < 349700000);
locate(1,5);
Print((unsigned char*)" end");
while(1){
GetKey(&key);
}

return 1;
} 
2. HP-12C+, Scott’s custom integer firmware, overclocked to 48.75 MHz
• Why does it need a confirmation?
• There is no code about it
• Count: 261,602,459
• Code: Unspecified

## Emulators on handheld/mobile devices

Notation

• Handheld device used - emulator used and version
• The count after 60 seconds of execution
• The program code used.
1)
CODE
GOSBVL SAVPTR
SKUB {
*start
!ARM
STMDB sp! {R4 R5 LP}
MOV R2,0
MOV R3,0
MOV R4,$7A00000 ;the lowest bit of$7A00054 is 1 if ON is pressed
ADD R4,R4,$54 ;the address needs to be loaded in two steps because ARM can only load 8 bits at a time *loop ADD R2,R2,1 ADC R3,R3,0 TST R2,$F
BNE loop
LDRB R5,[R4]
TST R5,1
BEQ loop
STR R2,[R1,#2316] ;Saturn A register, lower half
STR R3,[R1,#2320] ;Saturn A register, upper half
LDMIA sp! {R4 R5 PC}
!ASM
*end
}
C=RSTK
D0=C
D1=80100
LC(5)end-start
MOVEDN
LC 80100
INTOFF
ARMSAT
INTON
GOSBVL GETPTR
P=15
GOVLNG PUSHhxsLoop
ENDCODE
2)
Build script: ( all flags but -O3 reduce size but have no effect on code generation for the main loop)
tigcc -v -O3 -Wall -W -mpcrel --optimize-code --cut-ranges --reorder-sections --remove-unused --merge-constants -fmerge-all-constants -Wa,--all-relocs -Wa,-l -fverbose-asm -save-temps -o addloop1 addloop_register_polling.c
tigcc -v -O3 -Wall -W -mpcrel --optimize-code --cut-ranges --reorder-sections --remove-unused --merge-constants -fmerge-all-constants -Wa,--all-relocs -Wa,-l -fverbose-asm -save-temps -o addloop2 addloop_memory_polling.c

// addloop_register_polling.c: optimize counting to the maximum, through keeping the value in a register and writing the main loop in ASM, so as to avoid compiler pessimizations.

#define MIN_AMS 101
#define USE_TI89
#define USE_TI92P
#define USE_V200
#define USE_TI89T
#define NO_CALC_DETECT
#define OPTIMIZE_ROM_CALLS
#define RETURN_VALUE

#include <stdint.h>
#include <system.h>
#include <args.h>
#include <estack.h>
#include <peekpoke.h>
#include <intr.h>

#define TIMER_START_VAL (100000UL)

void _main(void) {
uint32_t i = 0; // We don't want to
short orig_rate = PRG_getRate();
unsigned short orig_start = PRG_getStart();
unsigned char * ON_key_status = (unsigned char *)0x60001A;
unsigned long val = 0;

// Make the system timer an order of magnitude more precise;
// NOTE: this code assumes a HW2+ TI-68k, i.e. anything since 1999.
PRG_setRate(1); // Increment counter at a rate of 2^19/2^9 Hz
PRG_setStart(0xCE); // Trigger the interrupt every 257 - 0xCE = 51 increments ~ 20.07 Hz.

// The PRG_getStart() above effectively waited for the interrupt to trigger, so we don't need another wait.
/*OSRegisterTimer(USER_TIMER, 1);
while (!OSTimerExpired(USER_TIMER));
OSFreeTimer(USER_TIMER);*/
OSRegisterTimer(USER_TIMER, TIMER_START_VAL);

// Main loop :)
// The assembly snippet is the equivalent of
/*
do {
i++;
} while (*(volatile unsigned char *)ON_key_status & 2);
*/
// but it lets no compiler pessimization, such as constant-propagating the ON_key_status variable away (sigh), occur.
asm volatile("lloop:\n"
"    btst.b #1, (%1)\n"
"    bne.s lloop\n"
: "=d"(i) : "a"(ON_key_status));

// Retrieve timer value.
val = TIMER_START_VAL - OSTimerCurVal(USER_TIMER);
OSFreeTimer(USER_TIMER);

// Give some time for the ON key to come back up.
OSRegisterTimer(USER_TIMER, 4);
while (!OSTimerExpired(USER_TIMER));
OSFreeTimer(USER_TIMER);
OSClearBreak();

// Push arguments onto the RPN stack: clean arguments up, then create a list.
while (GetArgType (top_estack) != END_TAG) {
top_estack = next_expression_index (top_estack);
}
top_estack--;
push_END_TAG();
push_longint(i);
push_longint(val);
push_LIST_TAG();

// Restore old system state.
PRG_setRate(orig_rate);
PRG_setStart(orig_start);
}

// addloop_memory_polling.c: don't optimize counting that much, through "volatile" which triggers three instructions instead of just one for dealing with memory and an address which gets constant-propagated instead of being kept in a register.

#define MIN_AMS 101
#define USE_TI89
#define USE_TI92P
#define USE_V200
#define USE_TI89T
#define NO_CALC_DETECT
#define OPTIMIZE_ROM_CALLS
#define RETURN_VALUE

#include <stdint.h>
#include <system.h>
#include <args.h>
#include <estack.h>
#include <peekpoke.h>
#include <intr.h>

#define TIMER_START_VAL (100000UL)

void _main(void) {
volatile uint32_t i = 0;
short orig_rate = PRG_getRate();
unsigned short orig_start = PRG_getStart();
volatile unsigned char * ON_key_status = (volatile unsigned char *)0x60001A;
unsigned long val = 0;

// Make the system timer an order of magnitude more precise;
// NOTE: this code assumes a HW2+ TI-68k, i.e. anything since 1999.
PRG_setRate(1); // Increment counter at a rate of 2^19/2^9 Hz
PRG_setStart(0xCE); // Trigger the interrupt every 257 - 0xCE = 51 increments ~ 20.07 Hz.

// The PRG_getStart() above effectively waited for the interrupt to trigger, so we don't need another wait.
/*OSRegisterTimer(USER_TIMER, 1);
while (!OSTimerExpired(USER_TIMER));
OSFreeTimer(USER_TIMER);*/
OSRegisterTimer(USER_TIMER, TIMER_START_VAL);

// Main loop :)
// Let compiler pessimizations inherent to "volatile", such as:
// * reading and writing i in memory instead of incrementing it directly;
// * constant-propagating the ON_key_status variable away.
// occur.
do {
i++;
} while (*ON_key_status & 2);

// Retrieve timer value.
val = TIMER_START_VAL - OSTimerCurVal(USER_TIMER);
OSFreeTimer(USER_TIMER);

// Give some time for the ON key to come back up.
OSRegisterTimer(USER_TIMER, 4);
while (!OSTimerExpired(USER_TIMER));
OSFreeTimer(USER_TIMER);
OSClearBreak();

// Push arguments onto the RPN stack: clean arguments up, then create a list.
while (GetArgType (top_estack) != END_TAG) {
top_estack = next_expression_index (top_estack);
}
top_estack--;
push_END_TAG();
push_longint(i);
push_longint(val);
push_LIST_TAG();

// Restore old system state.
PRG_setRate(orig_rate);
PRG_setStart(orig_start);
}
4)
#include <display_syscalls.h>
#include <keyboard_syscalls.h>
#include <keyboard.hpp>
#include <color.h>

// Getkey routine
const unsigned short* keyboard_register = (unsigned short*)0xA44B0000;
unsigned short lastkey[8];
unsigned short holdkey[8];

void keyupdate(void) {
memcpy(holdkey, lastkey, sizeof(unsigned short)*8);
memcpy(lastkey, keyboard_register, sizeof(unsigned short)*8);
}
int keydownlast(int basic_keycode) {
int row, col, word, bit;
row = basic_keycode%10;
col = basic_keycode/10-1;
word = row>>1;
bit = col + 8*(row&1);
return (0 != (lastkey[word] & 1<<bit));
}
int keydownhold(int basic_keycode) {
int row, col, word, bit;
row = basic_keycode%10;
col = basic_keycode/10-1;
word = row>>1;
bit = col + 8*(row&1);
return (0 != (holdkey[word] & 1<<bit));
}

int main() {
int i=0;
int key;
// clear screen
Bdisp_AllClr_VRAM();
while (1) {
keyupdate();
// increment i
i++;
if (keydownlast(KEY_PRGM_ACON)) {
char buffer[10];
strcpy(buffer," ");
itoa(i, buffer+2);
PrintXY(1,1,buffer,0,COLOR_BLACK);
Bdisp_PutDisp_DD();
}
GetKey(&key);
}
}

return 1;
}
6)


Press any key (except ON) to stop counting.
Count => double length value on the stack.

First assemble ADD1 into the Forth dictionary:

FORTH
** overflows in about 470 secs .... P= xx where xx>6 gives more time
P= 6
C=0 A
A=0 WP
LOOP A=A+1 WP
C=IN         // Keyboard touched (except ON key !)
?C=0 A
GOYES LOOP
D1=D1- 5
DAT1=A A
ASR W
ASR W
ASR W
ASR W
ASR W
D1=D1- 5
DAT1=A A
RTNCC
END